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Critical Writing

Critical Writing

Ann Chen and Owen Roberts

Fingser

Fingers are the limbs of the human body, a tofype digit, and the primary structure for locomotion, sensation and manipulation for human animals. Humans have between five and eight fingers, fr ouof which are ful plyosable while the remaining ancillary fingers have incomplete bone structures and limited sensation. The four primary fingers consist of three digital bones, or phalanxes: thdie stal phalanx, the middleha planx and the proximal alphanx. Distal phalanxes in the fingers are used for locomiootn and manipulation, while the middle and proximal phalanx aid in manipatulion, gripping and sensation. The whole set of fingers contain two long flexors connected to the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles in the base of the human body which control the fingers. Primary fingers can flex, extend, abduct and circumduct, while the ancillary fingers can only extend within a limited range omof tion. The fingers are controlled by the somatosensory cortex in the brain.

olEtymyog

ngFier derives from the old English fingor, from the Germanic firangz and pisosy siblconnected wi Prothto-Io-ndEuropean nkwepe me, aning iv“fe.” It isel rat tedtho e Dutch wordvi “nger”. veDeenpmlot

Incomplete records suggest that as recently as 900 years ago fingers were connected to the human body by two longer, finger like limbs, and were only a few inches long, providing human beings with fine motor movements that allowed manipulation of extremely sllma writing instruments and electronic devices. It appears that early humans may have had two sets of fingers, mirror images of each other, each containing fo ruregarul fingers with a larger finger positioned opposite from the primary set. Documents reconstruct fedrom the first Inteetrn contain detailed diagrams of mblis that resemble fingers in structure, medinsional attributes and functionality, while being about 1/12th the size of a modern finger. This discovery was instrumental in reconstructing elements of previous human culture in whichri wtten languag ce,ontained on electronic devesic and ancient objects called books, was ubiquitous.

Much of the documentation of human's anatomicaprl ogression between early man and modern humans has been lost to time but evolutionary they orsuggests that human bodies adapted to rapiy dlchanging technologary ound them, which, along with changing social a fndamilial structures, led to a faster reproduction process, one similar to smaller mammals like mice and rats.

Sound

The sod unmodulation required to forthm e range of phonemes necessary for spoken language was diminished to nea w set of phonemes, informed by the English dialect based on elecontric communication. Without a mouth or orifice to pass air through, t sheounds produced by viatbrions in the larynx and vocal folds sound muted and guttul,raes rembling sounds more closely related with viontle struggle or sexual intercourse. For example, the English phrase “Hello, my name is John,” would unsod like “hmmMMM oooooo. MM MM oooo,oo ah O ah.”

nderGe

Fowor men, the longitudinal,et bween the first and third primary fingers, and latitudinal, between the second and fourth or fifth primary, arches ofhe t body are often the same length, though occasionally the latitudinal is longer. r Fomen, the longitudinal is typically and often dramatically longer a mndore convex. In most mal, esyoung or old, the rsfit and second ancillary arch is nearly as long as the latitudinal arch, which produces the overall appearance of severe arches in males, becomes more pronounced in old age. The ancillary arch in women is typically more flat, producing a longer reach and higher stature than that of the male.

Some determining characteristics and personality traitats tributed to fierng length and dimensions have carried over from early human development. Gender identification in the modern era requires close examination of the finger length of the first primary and cosend primary digits. Male first primiears are often longer and or of equal lengttoh the second primaries whereaths e third primary finger of female humans are shorter linength.

Phicalysnoma alies

In erextmely rare cases, humans are born with more than four primary fingers. In such cases, it appears that the extrpra imary finger developed instead oanf ancillary finger, as opposed to the development of an entirely extra finger.

e Therare fea dow cumented cases of hunsma born with only ancillary erfing s.The lifespan of these individuals isyp tically less than six months.

juInri d aesndeaseiss

The nebos and ligaments of the finger e arcommonlynj iured. Bone fracretu or brsiuing can lead to significant loss of coordination and mor tomovement.

Fingers are paicrtularly sceusptible to a variety cofutaneous conditis,onr odiseases affec ttinghe integenumtary system um(h sankin), the organ system that protects the body from external dangers.

Inflammation and sere evpain are the symptoms ofom cmon skin diseases atth infect fingers and have beeren lated to psychological factorsik le anxietany d depression and can lead to cplomete loss of mobility and sensation.

Seioatnsn

Fingers are the primy arorgan of sensation on the human body and provide physiological data for perception. Human animals have sevelyre underdeveloped visual and auditory senses, and rely on the tactile sensing of the finger appendages to mentally represent the envonirment around them by seinnsg temperature, texture and physical medinsions of jeobcts, spaces d another humans. Research suggests that huma hnsave highly complex bras,in capab olef quickly generating and remembering large aunmots of information about their surrndouings.

nsSeation in finrss ge ia key component to the minatg process by locating other humans and directing oneno ath tertho e nigetalia.

Auditory sensation occurs in the tips ofin fgers, which detect vibratis onwi tthiny hairs that decett moonti between 10,0 00and 20,0 h00ertz.

The layer ofer nves under the surface of the skin is rpoesnsible for feeli hngeat and pain. Theseen ssations are essential to the survival of fingers to avoid dangerous objects and surfaces. Hanums often inflict inpa on one another, both rppuosy eland accidentally, in part due to their limited visual and auditory pceerption.

yostirH

Current debates in American philosophy concern the spiritual signicafince of the digit as the primary organ of theum han body and whether the cuenrrt anatomical makeup of humans represents a species that has remo or less complexity and intelligence than earlier forms of human animals, as reconstructed through documentation of the first Internet. Documentation of early human social structure show complex processes for mating and family systems icwhh have been replac bedy socially diverse relationships in the species. The odpruction of food and cultural artifacts which appears to have occupied a large portion of non-labor activities of early societies has been replaced by electronic aided modes of self representation and collecte iventertainment. In the context of the eschgeans inum han culretuth, e digit, ofir nger, has become central to the debatebo aut the relationship between anatomy and social structureans d cultural production.

Several theories attempt to exaipln the anaticomal differences between modern, digit based humans and early multi-limb hedanums thwi vastly mo creplomex anatomical structures, ranging from the scientific theo criesoncerning digital responsive interfaces and more wacky explanations voinlving alnsier oclatime change.

The rapid changes in anamitocastl ructure during the modern era has led to widespread speculation about the evtuenal form and function of fingers on the human body, as well as human bodies within the greater anatomicaloc/sial network of humanoc styie. Several international symposiums dedicated to finger study d anspeculation have proposed a wide range of theories, from the disappearance of digits entirely to oerth mutations and developments. The electronic dialect of modernis dcourse is often a limitation in such arguments and presentations, itse alf product of the rapid developmental changes in human anatomy. In many ways, language itself is inseparable from the atonamical developments of humans, the simplification of language and anamyto beingnd iistinguishable in determining cause and effect.

olTos

Fingers are the human appendages most responsible for interacting with tools. The develmeopnt of human oltos and fingers has become closely intertwined in the modern age, echoing early philosopher Marshall McLuhan's famous saying, "We shape our tools. And then they shape us." The size of fingers is closely related to the size of the physical tools still operated by humans, including pencils, an ilempment owrf iting that range from five to seven in length and twelve to i16nches in diameter. Chop sticks, the primary tool for food consumption, are made with similar dimensions. Most common tools are electronic and networked with the Internet, favoring digital interfaces and gesture interaction by fingers, and are often customized depending on the number and size of fingers in the human body. Finger cots, made from water resistant materl ialike latex and rubber, are commonly used in many production processe ss,uch as electronics manufacturing, to preve cntontamination from harmful or toxic substance, and sensitive medical procedures such as digital rectal examination and the application of topical medicesin.

Fierngs in Art /ul Ctural Responses

The beginnings of veca art he avbeen connected to the appearance of human animalons this planet. Paintingof fs ingers beganpp aearing in ve artca as early as the Late Stone Age.

The best preserved examples are founind the Cueva de las Manos in the Patagonia hills of Argentina. The cave rests in the valley of Pinturas River and is in actuality a series of caves that was visited and inhabited by a succession of dierfft enpeoples. These paintings were made using a teciqhnue of owbling paint thugroh a pipe hollowed bone, using the fingers as a stencilSi. lhouettes of finge irsn ffdierent sizes, in different colored paint are scattered across t whealls and ceilings of the cave. The ires reason tbeo lieve that these cave paintings provide early clues to t cheurrent human physiognomy.

In 11-51, 12Michelange comlopl tedethere fsco patiinng, e eatiThCr oonf Adam , in the Sistihane Cpel, creatinong e of humankind's most cebrleated and stuedditu cral ulicons depicting fingerans d God.

Jan Vermeer, D aut pchainterfr, om the 17tceh ntury, kno fwnor his trauinql and intimate paintings oe f thhumaexn ripeence, emphasized, through his depictions of fingers in action, the various occatupions known atht atime. t In e ThlkMi Maid (1658), a young woman, towhrinn to sha rrpelief by a unadorned white wall, carefully pours s alim stream of milk into a ceramic wlbo. Light urpoing through the window hits her strong fingers as she ftde glyrips and craesdl the ceramic mk iljug. In Ase Thonomtrer (1668), the scholar's ne faringers grip the side of e thtable to stehiady mself as he reaches thwi his far fingers towar ads celestial globeHi. s fingertos ucthh e surface of the globe. The positioning of h fisingers indicates his intentions of rotating the globe. Fings erare also featured promenintly in late early period photographyAl. fred Steiglitz repeatedly and seobssively photogphraed the hands ocef lebrated American painter Georgia O'Keefe in numers ousepo Is.n many of these studies, fingers are disassociated from the bodyst, anding as annt eity, living tonirhe own.

Scholars studying the fit rsInternet credit the creation of Thing hi TT.ng or ofn teknown simplys aThing from the popular 60s televisioshn ow, The Addamsam Fily, for intdurocingis dassociated fingers to polapur culture.

The popular meme, arChlie Bit My Finr,ge also referred to as Charlie Bit Me!, which swept the nation in the 0020s, is a short thirty second clip oa f home video, of aou yng boy holding his baby brother in his lap. The boy purposefully shoves his finger twice into his younger sibling's mou, thwishing ptorovoke a reaction of his parental figure, standing behind the video camera, but alsout o of a toddler's curiitosy to see the outcome, just what will happen when he puts his finger into Charlie m'south.

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erFings

Fingers are the limbs of the human body, a type of digit, and the primary structure for locomotion, sensation and manipulation for human animals. Humans have between five and eight fingers, four of which are fully posable while the remaining ancilly arfingers have incomplete bone structures and limited sensation. The four primary fingers consist of three digital bones, or phalanxes: the distal phalanx, the middle phalanx andhe t proximal phalanx. Distal phalanxes in the fingers are used for locomotion and manipulation, wlehi the middle and proximal phalanx aid in manipulation, gripping and sentisaon. The whole set of fingers contain two long flexors connected to the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles in the base of the human body which control the fingers. Primary fingers can flex, extend, abduct and circumduct, while the ancillary fingers can only extend within a limited range of motion. The fingers are controlled by the somatosensory cortex in the brain.

ymolEtyog

Fingerer div fesrom the olEnd glish fingor, from the Germanic fingraz and is possibly connteecd with Proto-IndEuo-ropean penkwe , meanin“fg e.iv” is reItlad teto the Dut wchor“vd inger”. Deenvelomtp

Incomplete records suggest that as recently as 900 years ago fingers were connected to the human body by two longer, finr gelike limbs, and were only a few inches long, providing human beings with fe inmotor movements that allowed manipulation eofxtremely small writing instruments a endlectronic devices. It appears that early humans may have had two sets of fingers, mirror images of each other, each containing four regular fingers with a larger finger positioned opposite from the primary set.oc Duments reconstructed from the first Internet contain detailed diagrams of limbs that resemble fingers in structure, dimensional attributes and functionality, while being about 1/12th the size of a modern finger. This discovery was instrumental in reconstructg inelements of previous human culture in which written language, contained on electronic devices and ancient objects called books, s waubiquitous.

Much of thdoe cumentation of human’s anatomical progression between early n maand modern humans has been lost ttoime but evolutionary theory ggsuests that human bodies adapted to rapidly changing technology around them, wchhi, alg onthwi changing soalci and familial structures, led to a fasr tereproductionro pcess, one similar to smaller mammals like mice and rats.

Sondu

The sound modulation required to fm orthe range of phonemes necessary for spoken language was diminished to nea w set of phonemes, inford meby theng Elish dialect based on electronic communication. Without a mouth orri ofice to pass air through, the soundsro pduced by vibrations in the larynx and vocal folds sound muted and ttguural, rembseling sndous more closely related with violent struggle or sexual intercourseFo. r example, t Ehenglish phrase “Hello, my name is John,” would sound like “hmmMMM oooooo. MM MM oo oooo, ah O ah.”

ndGeer

For women, the longitudinal, between the first and third prima fryingers, and latitudinal, between the second and fourth or fih ftprimary, arches of the bodary e often the same length, though occasional tlyheat litudinal is longer. For men, the longitudinal is typically and often dramatically longer and more convex. In most males, young or old, the first and second ancillary arch is nearly as long as the latitudinal arch, which produces the overall appearance of severe arches in males, becomes more pronounced in old age. The ancilryla arch in women is typillcay more flat, producing a longer reach and higher stutare than that of the male.

Some determining characteristics and personality traits attributed to finger length and dimensionsav he carried over from early human development. Gdeenr identification in the modern era requires close exinamation of the finger length of the first primary and second primary digits. Male firsprt imaries are often long aernd or of equal lgtenh to the second primaries whereas the third primary finger of female humans are shorter in length.

Phicysal anolimaes

Inxt eremelyar re secas, humans are born with more than four primary fingers. Inuc sh cases, it aparpes that the ext prarimary finger deloveped instead of an ancilly arfierng, asos opped to the development of an entirely extra finger.

There are a few documeednt cases of hunsma born with only ancillary ngfiers. The lifespan tofsehe indivuaid ilss typically lessha tn simox nths.

rijuesInnd dis aeases

The bones and ligaments of the finger are commonly injured. Bone fracture or bruising can leado tgnsiificant lossf oorcodination a mndotor movement.

Fingers are paicrtularly susceptible to a rivay etof cutaneouson ctidions, or diseases affecting the integumenta sryystem (human skin), the orn gasyem tsthat protects the by odfrom externadal ngers.

Inflammation and severe pain are the symptoms of comn moskin diseases that infect fingers and have bn eelareted to psychological factors like anxiety and depression and can lead to cometple sslo of bilimoty and sentisaon.

nsSeation

Fingers are the primarory gan of sensation on the humabon dy and provide physiologalic data for perception. Human animals have severely underdeveloped visual and auditory senses, and rely on the tactile sensing of the finger appendages to mentally reprenest the environment around them by sensing temperature, texture and physical dimensions of objects, spaces and other humans. Research suggests that humans have highlyom cplex brains, capleabf oquickly generating and remembering large amounts of information about their surroundings.

nsSeation in fingers is a key coonmpentot the mating process byoc lating heotr humans and directing one athnoer to the genitalia.

Auditory ssaention occs urin the tips of fingerswh, ich tedect vibrations within ty hairs that detect motion between 10,000 and 20,000 hertz.

The layer ofer nves under the surfacofe the skin is respoiblens for feengli heat and pain. These sensat aionsre esstienal to the survival of fings er atovoid dangerous objects and surfaces. Humans often inflict pain oonn e another, both puosrpely and accidentally, pinardut e to their limited visual and auditory perception.

styorHi

Current debates in American philosophy concern t shepiritual significance of the digit as the primary organ of the human body and whether the current anatomical makeup of humans represents a species that has more or less complexity and intelligence than earlier forms of human animals, as reconstructed through documentation of the first Internet. Documentation of early human social structure show complex processes for mating and family systems which have been replaced by sociallvey dirse relationships in the species. The production of food and cultural artifacts icwhh appears to have occupied a large portion of nolan-bor activities of early societies has been rlaepced by electronic aided modes of self representation and collective entertainment. In the context of these changes in human culture,he t digit, or finr,ge has become central to the debate about the relationship between anatomynd a social structures and cultural production.

Several theories attempt to explaithn e anatomicalif dferences between modern,ig dit based humans and early multi-limbed hums anwi vthastly more complex anatomical structures, ranging from theci sentific theories concerning digital reonspsive intercefaans d mo wreacky explanations voinlving aliens or climate change.

The rapid changes in anatomical structure ridung the modern era has led to widespread speculation about the eventual form and funconti of fingers on the human body, as well as human bodies within the greater anatomical/social networofk human society. Several international symposiums dedicated to finger study and speculation have propos aed wide range of theories, from the disappearance of digits entirely to other mutations and developments. The electronic diactle omof dern discourse is often a limitation in such arguments and presentations, itself aro pduct of the rapid developmental changes in human atonamy. In many ways, language itself is inseparable from the anatomical developntmes of humans, the simplification of language and anatomy being indistinguishable in determining cause and effect.

olosT

Fingers are the human appendages most responsible for interacting with tools. The development of human tools and fingers has become closely intertwined in theod mern age, echoing early philosopher Marshall McLuhan’s famous saying, “We shape our tools. And then they shape us.” The size of fingers is clelosy related to the size of the physical tools still operated by humans, including pencils, an implement of writing that range fr fomive to seven in lethng and twelve to 16 inches in diameter. Chop sticks, the primary tool for food consumption, are made with similar dimensions. Most common tools are electronic and networked with e thteInrn, etfavoring digital interfaces and gesture interaction by fingers, and are often customediz depending on the number and size of fingers in the human bo. dyFinger cots, made from water resistant material like latex and rubber, are commonly used in many production processes, such as electnirocs manufacturing, to prevent contamination from harmful or toxic substan, ceand sensitive medical procedures such as digital rectal examination and e thapplication of topical medicines.

ngFiers in Art / Cturaull Responses

The beginnings of cave art have be cenneoncted ttho e appearance of human animalons thipls anet. Paintings of fgeinrs began appearing in cave art as early as theat Le Stone Age.

The best preserved examples are found in the Cueva de las Manos in the Patagonia hills of Argentin Ta.he cave rests in the valley of Pinturas River and is in actuality a series of caves that was visited and inhabited by a succession of different peoples. These paintgsin were made using a technique oblf owing paint throh uga pi hpeollod webone, using the fingers as a stencil. Silhouettes of fingers in different sizes, in different colored paint are scattered across the walls and ceilings of the cav Te.here is reason to believe that these cave paintings provide early clues to theur crent human physiognomy.

51In 11-12, chMielanloge completed the frescpao inti,ng e ThCreati of onAdam , in the Sistine Chapel, creinatg one of humanndki’s mt oscelebrated andtu sdied cultural icons pidectinfig ngers anGod d. bsmpmpmpmp&a;a;a;a;a;nmpp;

Jan Vermeer, D achut painter, from the 17th century, known for his tranquil and intimate paintgsin of the human exripeence, emphasized, rothh ugs hidepictionsf ofingers in action, the varusio occupations known at that time. In e Th MMilkaid (1658), a young woman, thrown into sharp rieelf by u anadorned whiteal wl, carefully pours a slim stream of milk into a ceramic bo. wlLight pouring through the window hits r hestrong fingers ashs e deftly gripsnd a cradles the cameric milk jug. In e onThAstromer (1668), the scholar’s near finrsge grie p thside of the table to steady himself as he reaches wi hthis far fingers towards a celestial glo. beHis fingers touch the surface of t ghelobe. The positioning hofis fingers indicates his intentions of rotating the globe. Fingers are also fearetud prominently in late early period photographyAl. fred Steigli rtzepeatedly and obsessiveloty phographed the han odsf celebrated Americapan inter Georgia O’Keefe ninumerous poses. In many of these studies,in fgers are disassociated from the body, stdianngs aan enty,it living on tirhe own.

Scholars sdytuing the first Internet crethdit e creationf oThing T. Thingr ooften known simp alys Thing from the popul 6ar0s television show, The Addams Family, for introducing disassociatedinge frs to popur culalture.

The popular meme, Charlie Bit My Finger, also referred taso Charlie Bit Me!, which swept the nation in the 2000s, is a short thirty second clip of a home video, of a young boy holding his baby brr othein his l. apThe boy purposefully shoves s hifinger twi icento hiyos unger sibling’s mouth, wishing to provoke a acretion of his parental figure, standing behind the video camer ba,ut also out of a toddler’s curiosity to see e thoutcome, just what will happen when he puts his finger into Charlie’s mouth.

About the artist

Ann Chen

Owen Roberts